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Reducing Dengue Disease
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Agudelo-Silva, F and A Spielman. 1984. Paradoxical effects of simulated larviciding on production of adult mosquitoes. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 33:1267-1269.

Hess AD and RO Hays. 1970. Relative potentials of domestic animals for zooprophylaxis against mosquito vectors of encephalitis. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 19:327-334.

Gubler, DJ. 1990. Aedes aegypti and Aedes aegypti-borne disease control in the 1990'S. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 40:571-578.

Lacey, LA and CM Lacey. 1990. The medical importance of riceland mosquitoes and their control using alternatives to chemical insecticides. J. AM. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 6(Suppl. 2):1-93.

Rawlins, SC. 1989. Biological control of insect pests affecting man and animals in the tropics. CRC Critical Revs Microbiol. 16:235-252.

Nasci, RS. 1988. Biology of Aedes triseriatus (Diptera: Culicidae) developing in tires in Louisiana. J. Med. Ent. 25:402-5.

Service, MW. 1983. Biological control of mosquitos - has it a future? Mosq. News 43:113-

Washburn, JO, DR Mercer and JR Anderson. 1991. Regulatory role of parasites: impact on host population shifts with resource availability. Science 253:185-188.

Williams, CM. 1967. Third-generation pesticides. Sci. Amer. 217:13-17.


Lu BL. ca 1989. Recent studies on the dengue vectors of China. Working paper, pp 89-92.

Neng, W, W Shusen, H. Guangxin, X Rongman, T Guangkun, and Q Chen. 1987. Control of Aedes aegypti larvae in household water containers by Chinese cat fish. Bull. Wld Hlth Org. 65:503-506.


Spielman, A and JJ Sullivan. 1974. Predation on peridomestic mosquitoes by hylid tadpoles on Grand Bahama Island. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 23:704-709.


Gilotra, SK, LE Rozeboom and NC Bhattacharya. 1967. Observations on possible competitive displacement between populations of Aedes aegypti Linnaeus and Aedes albopictus Skuse in Calcutta. Bull. Wld. Hlth. Org. 37:437-446.

Ho, BC, A Ewert and LM Chew. 1989. Interspecific competition among Aedes aegypti, Ae. albopictus, and Ae. triseriatus (Diptera: Culicidae): larval development in mixed cultures. J. Med. Entomol. 26:615-23.

Lardeux, F, F Riviere, Y Sechan and B Kay. 1992. Field Release of Mesocyclops aspercornis (Copepoda: Cyclopidae) for control of Aedes polynesiensis on an atol in French Polynesia. J. Med. Entmol. (in press).

Livdahl, TP and MS Willey. 1992. Prospects for an invasion: Competition between Aedes albopictus and native Aedes triseriatus. Science 253:189-191.

Llewwellyn, CH, A Spielman and TE Frothingham. 1970. Survival of arboviruses in Aedes albonotatus, a peridomestic Bahamian mosquito. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 133:551-559.

O'Meara, GF, VL Larson, DH Mook, MD Latham. 1989. Aedes bahamensis: its invasion of south Florida and association with Aedes aegypti. J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc. 5:1-5.

O'Meara, GF, AD Gettmen, LF Evans Jr and FD Scheel. 1992a. Invasion of cemeteries in Florida by Aedes albopictus. J. Amer. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 7:in press.

O'Meara, GF, VL Larsen and DH Mook. 1992b. Blood feeding and autogeny in the peridomestic mosquito, Aedes bahamensis (Diptera: Culicidae). J. Med. Entomol. 29:in press.

Rai, KS. 1991. Aedes albopictus in the Americas. Ann. Rev. Entomol. 36:459-84.

Ribeiro, JMC and A. Spielman. 1986. The Satyr effect: a model predicting parapatry and species extinction. Amer. Naturalist 128:513-528.

Spielman, A and JG Kitzmiller. 1967. The genetics of populations of medically important arthropods. in JR Wright and R. Pal (eds), Genetics of Insect Vectors of Disease. Elsevier, Amsterdam pp 459-485.

Spielman, A and FM Feinsod. 197?. Differential distribution of peridomestic Aedes mosquitoes on Grand Bahama Island. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 73:381-384.

Walker, ED, RS Copeland, SL Paulson, LE Munsterman. 1987. Adult survivorship, population density, and body size in sympatric populations of Aedes triseriatus and Aedes hendersoni (Diptera: Culicidae). J. Med Ent. 24:485-93.


Annis, B, S Krisnowardojo, S Atmosoedjono and P Supardi. 1989. Suppression of larval Aedes aegypti populations in household water storage containers in Jakarta, Indonesia, through release of first instar Toxorhynchites splendens larvae. J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc. 5:235-238.

Annis, B, S. Nalim, Hadisuwono, Widiarti and DT Boewono. 1990. Toxorhynchites amboinensis larvae released in domestic containers fail to control dengue vectors in domestic containers in a rural village in Central Java. J. Amer. Mosq. Control Assoc. 6:75-78.

Focks, DA, DA Dame, AL Cameron and MD Boston. 1980. Predator-prey interaction between insular populations of Toxorhynchites rutilus rutilus and Aedes aegypti. Environ. Entomol. 9:37-42.

Focks, DA, SR Sackett and DL Bailey. 1982. Field experiments on the control of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus by Toxorhynchites rutilus rutilus (Diptera: Culicidae). J. Med. Entomol. 19:336-339.

Gerberg, EJ and WM Visser. 1978. Preliminary field trial for the biological control of Aedes aegypti by means of Toxorhynchites brevipalpis, a predatory mosquito larva. Mosq. News 38:197-200.

Hubbard, SF, SLC O'Malley and R Russo. 1988. The functional response of Toxorhynchites rutilus rutilus to changes in the population density of its prey, Aedes aegypti. Med. Vet. Entomol. 2: 279-283.

Sebastian, A, MM Sein, MM Thu and PS Corbet. 1990. Bull. Ent. Res. 80:223-232.

Hormonomimetic compounds

Spielman, A, and CM Williams. 1966. Lethal effects of synthetic juvenile hormone on larvae of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti. Science. 154:1043-1044.

Spielman, A. 1970. Synthetic juvenile hormones as larvicides for mosquitoes. Industry Trop. Hlth. 7:67-70.

Staal, GB. 1975. Insect growth regulators with juvenile hormone activity. Ann. Rev. Entomol. 16:417-460.


Brown, MD, BH Kay and JK Hendrix. 1991. Evaluation of Australian Mesocyclops (Cyclopoida: Cyclopidae) for mosquito control. J. Med. Entomol 28:618-623.

Urlbut, HS. 1938. Copepod observed preying on first instar larva of Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say. J. Parasitol. 24:281.

Marten, GG, R. Astaiza, MF Suarez, C Monje and JW Reid. 1989. Natural control of larval Anopheles albimanus (Diptera: Culicidae) by the predator Mesocyclpos (Copepoda: Cyclopoida). J. Med. Entomol. 26:624-627.

Marten, GG. 1990. Evaluation of cyclopoid copepods for Aedes albopictus control in tires. J. Amer. Mosq. Control Assoc. 6:681-688.

Marten, GG. 1990. Elimination of Aedes albopictus from tire piles by introducing Macrocyclops albidus (Copepoda, Cyclopidae). J. Amer. Control Assoc. 6:689-693.

Marten, GG. 1990. Elimination of Aedes albopictus from tire piles by introducing Macrocyclops albidus (Copepoda Cyclopidae). J. Amer. Mosq. Control Assoc. 6:689-93.

Marten, GG. 1990. Evaluation of cyclopoid copepods for Aedes albopictus control in tires. J. Amer. Mosq. Control Assoc. 6:681-87.

Marten, GG. 1984. Impact of the copepod Mesocyclops leuckarti pilosa and the green alga Kirchneriella irregularis upon larval Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae). 1984. Bull. Soc. Vector Ecol. 9:1-5.

Marten GG. 1990 Larvivorous Copepods. New Orleans Mosquito Control Board Monthly Report.

Marten, GG. 1991. Biological Control (Copepods). New Orleans Mosquito Control Board Monthly Report.

Marten GG. 1991. Pilot project on the use of Cyclops for Aedes aegypti control in Progress, Honduras: Summary report for the first year and work plan for the second year.

Riviere, F, BH Kay, JM Klein and Y Sechan. 1987. Mesocyclops aspericornis (Copepoda) and Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis for the biological control of Aedes and Culex vectors (Diptera: Culicidae) breeding in crab holes, tree holes and artificial containers. J. Med. Entomol. 24:425-430.


Perich, MJ, PM CLair and LR Boobar. 1990. Integrated use of planaria (Dugesia dorotocephala and Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis against Aedes taeniorhynchus: a laboratory bioassay. J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc. 6:667-671.


Beier, JC and GB Craig Jr. 1985. Gregarine parasites on mosquitoes. Integr. Mosq. Cont. Meth. 2:167-184.

Munstermann, L. 1990. First record of Ascogregarina taiwanensis (Apicomplexa: Lecunidae) in North American Aedes albopictus. J. Am. Mosq. Cont. Assoc. 6:235-243.

Read, AF and SJ Schrag. 1991. The evolution of virulence: experimental evidence. Parasit. Today 7:296-297.

Washburn, JO, DE Egerter, JR Anderson and GA Saunders. 1991. Density reduction in larval mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) populations by interactions between a parasitic ciliate (Ciliophora: Tetrahymenidae) and an opportunistic fungal (Ooemycetes: Pythiaceae) parasite. J. Med. Entomol. 25:307-314.

Walker, ED, SJ Poirier and WT Veldman. 1987. Effects of Ascogregarina barretti (Eugregarinida: Lecudinidae) infection on emergence success, development time, and size of Aedes triseriatus (Diptera: Culicidae) in microcosms and tires. J. Med. Entomol. 24:303-9.


Andreadis, TG. 1989. Host specificity of Amblyospora connecticus (Microsporida: Amblyosporidae), a polymorphic microsporidian parasite of Aedes cantator (Diptera: Culicidae). J. Med. Entomol. 26:140-145.

Chapman, HC. 1985. Ecology and use of Coelomomyces species in biological control, a review. in JN Couch and CE Bland (eds) The genus Coelomomyces. Academic Press, NY. pp 361-369.

Kerwin, JL, CA Simmons and RK Washino. 1986. Oosporogenesis by Lagenidium giganteum in liquid culture. J. Invert. Pathol. 47:258-270.

Kerwin, JL and RK Washino. 1988. Lagenidium giganteum (Oomycetes: Lagenidium) and description of a natural epizootic involving a new isolate of the fungus. J. Med. Ent. 25:453-460.

Ravellec, M, A Vey and G Riba. 1989. Infection of Aedes albopictus by Toplocladium cylindrosporum. J. Invert. Pathol. 53:7-11.

Sweeney, AW and JJ Becnel. 1991. Potential of microsporidia for the biological control of mosquitoes. Parasit. Today 7:217-220.

Sweeney, AW, SL Doggett and G. Gullick. 1988. Bioassay experiments on the dose response of Mesocyclops sp. copepods to meiospores of Amblyospora dyxenuides produced in Culex annulirostris mosquito larvae. J. Invert. Pathol. 53:118-120.

Whistler, HC, SL Zebold and JA Semanchuk. 1974. Alternate host for the mosquito parasite Coelomomyces 251:715-716.

Wilson, ML, F Agudelo-Silva and A Spielman. Increased abundance , size and longevity of food-deprived mosquito populations exposed to a fungal larvicide. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 43:551-536.

Zattau, WC and T McInnis, Jr. 1987. Life cycle and mode of infection of Leptolegnia chapmanii (Oomycetes) parasitizing Aedes aegypti. J. Invert. Pathol. 50:134-145.


Goldberg, LJ, and J. Margalit. 1977. A bacterial spore demonstrating rapid larvicidal activity against Anopheles sergentii, Uranotaenia unguiculata, Culex univittatus, Aedes aegypti and Culex pipiens. Mosq. News. 37:355-358.

Lacey, LA and AH Undeen. 1986. Microbial control of black flies and mosquitoes. Ann. Rev. Entomol. 31:265-96.

Ohana, B, J Margalit and Z Barak. 1987. Fate of Bacillus thuringiensis under simulated field conditions. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 53:828-831.

Plant extracts

Green, MM, JM Singer, DJ Sutherland and CR Hibben. 1991. Larvicidal activity of Tagetes minuta (Marigold) toward Aedes aegypti. J. Amer. Mosq. Control Assoc. 7:182-286.

Spielman, A and A Lemma. 1973. Endod extract, a plant derived moluscicide: toxicity for mosquitoes. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 22:802-804.

Minjas, JN and RK Sarda. 1986. Laboratory observations on the toxicity of Swartzia madagascariensis (Leguminosae) to mosquito larvae. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyge. 80:460-461.


Marten, GG. 1987. The potential of mosquito-indigestible phytoplankton for mosquito control. Oper. and Sci Notes. Op. and Sci. Notes. 3:105-6

Marten, GG. 1986. Mosquito control by plankton management: the potential of indigestible green algae. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 89:213-222.

Minjas, JN and RK Sarda. 1986. Laboratory observations on the toxicity of Swartzia madagascariensis (Leguminosae) extract to mosquito larvae. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyge.. 80:460-461.


Dawson, GE, BR Laurence, JA Pickett, MM PiLE and LJ Wadhams. 1989. A Note on the mosquito oviposition pheromone. Pestic. Sci. 37:000-000.

Otieno, WA, TO Onyango, MM Pile, BR Laurence, GW Dawson, LJ Wadhams and JA Pickett. 1988. A field trial of the synthetic oviposition pheromone with Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) in Kenya. Bull. Ent. Res. 78:463-470.


Case, TJ and RK Washino. 1979. Flatworm control of mosquito larvae in rice fields. Science 206:1412-1414.

Humphrey-Smith, I, O Grulet and C Chastel. 1991. Pathogenicity of Spiroplasma taiwanense for larval Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Med Vet Entomol 5:229-232.

Kerwin, JL and RK Washino. 1985. Recycling of Romanomermis culicivorax (Mermithidae: nematoda) in rice fields in California, USA. J. Med. Entomol. 22:637-643.

a8.genetic control

Submitted by:

Andrew Spielman
Harvard School of Public Health
665 Huntington Ave.
Boston, MA 02115
(617) 432-2058

Edited by:

Elizabeth Wiley
E.S. Harkness Dorm
367 Cedar St.
New Haven, CT 06510

All photos courtesy of and copyright:

Leonard E. Munstermann, Ph.D.
Scientist (Epidemiology), Yale School of Medicine

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